Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Description of Business and Basis of Presentation (Policies)

Description of Business and Basis of Presentation (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2024
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Forward Air Corporation and its subsidiaries (“Forward Air” or the “Company) is a leading asset-light freight and logistics company. The Company has three reportable segments: Expedited Freight, Intermodal and Omni Logistics. The Company conducts business in North America, Europe, and Asia.

The Expedited Freight segment provides expedited regional, inter-regional and national less-than-truckload (“LTL) and truckload services. Expedited Freight also offers customers local pick-up and delivery and other services including shipment consolidation and deconsolidation, warehousing, customs brokerage and other handling services.

The Intermodal segment provides first- and last-mile high value intermodal container drayage services both to and from seaports and railheads. Intermodal also offers dedicated contract and container freight station (“CFS) warehouse and handling services.
Variable Interest Entities VIEs are legal entities in which equity investors do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to independently finance its activities, or as a group, the holders of the equity investment at risk lack the power through voting or similar rights to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact its economic performance, or do not have the obligation to absorb the expected losses of the entity or the right to receive expected residual returns of the entity. Consolidation of a VIE is required if a reporting entity is the primary beneficiary of the VIE.Interests in these VIEs are evaluated to determine if the Company is the primary beneficiary. This evaluation gives appropriate consideration to the design of the entity and the variability that the entity was designed to create and pass along, the relative power of each party, and to the Company’s obligation to absorb losses or receive residual returns of the entity. The Company concluded that the VIEs should be consolidated as of December 31, 2023 because the Company had (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIE and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses and the right to receive benefits, which could potentially be significant. On January 25, 2024 (“the Closing”), the Company completed the acquisition of Omni Newco, LLC (“the Omni Acquisition”) pursuant to the Agreement and plan of Merger, dated as of August 10, 2023 (the “Merger Agreement”) and amended by Amendment No. 1, dated as of January 22, 2024 (the “Amended Merger Agreement”). The VIEs were acquired as part of the Omni Acquisition and assumed into the Company's consolidated subsidiaries as of March 31, 2024.
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are of a normal recurring nature necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the periods presented. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. Results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results for the year.
Foreign Currency
Foreign currency amounts attributable to foreign operations have been translated into United States dollars. Assets and liabilities are translated to United States dollars at period-end exchange rates and income and expense items are translated at average rates of exchange prevailing during the period. Translation adjustments are included in “Accumulated other comprehensive loss” in stockholders’ equity within the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and gains and losses, which result from foreign currency transactions, are included in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss) Income.
Restricted Cash
As of March 31, 2024, the Company had restricted cash in the amount of $20,228 related to letters of credit, which guarantee the Company’s obligations for potential claims exposure for insurance coverage.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when the Company satisfies the performance obligation by the delivery of a shipment in accordance with contractual agreements, bills of lading (“BOLs”) and general tariff provisions. The amount of revenue recognized is measured as the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those services pursuant to a contract with a customer. A contract exists once the Company enters into a contractual agreement with a customer. The Company does not recognize revenue in cases where collectability is not probable, and defers recognition until collection is probable or payment is received.

The Company generates revenue from the delivery of a shipment and the completion of related services. Revenue for the delivery of a shipment is recorded over time to coincide with when customers simultaneously receive and consume the benefits of the delivery services. Accordingly, revenue billed to a customer for the transportation of freight are recognized over the transit period as the performance obligation to the customer is satisfied. The Company determines the transit period for a shipment based on the pick-up date and the delivery date, which may be estimated if delivery has not occurred as of a reporting period. The determination of the transit period and how much of it has been completed as of a given reporting date may require the Company to make judgments that impact the timing of revenue recognized. For delivery of shipments with a pick-up date in one reporting period and a delivery date in another reporting period, the Company recognizes revenue based on relative transit time in each reporting period. A portion of the total revenue to be billed to the customer after completion of a delivery is recognized in each reporting period based on the percentage of total transit time that has been completed at the end of the applicable reporting period. Upon delivery of a shipment or related service, customers are billed according to the applicable payment terms. Related services are a separate performance obligation and include accessorial charges such as terminal handling, storage, equipment rentals and customs brokerage.
Revenue is classified based on the line of business as the Company believes that best depicts the nature, timing and amount of revenue and cash flows. For all lines of business, the Company records revenue on a gross basis as it is the principal in the transaction as the Company has discretion to determine the amount of consideration. Additionally, the Company has the discretion to select drivers and other vendors for the services provided to customers. These factors, discretion in the amount of consideration and the selection of drivers and other vendors, support revenue recognized on a gross basis.